Institut für den Nahen und Mittleren Osten



The Arabic Papyrology Database Guidelines

Guidelines for preparation and implementation of texts for the Arabic Papyrology Database (

1. Preparation of the texts

1.1. Punctuation, Vocalization

We enter the editio princeps as basic text in the APD. If the edition princeps was published before 1863 and a republication after 1863 exists, we will treat the republication as basic text. Variants of the pre-1863 editio princeps will be entered in the APD only, if we think that they offer better readings than the republication. (d. September 15)

Type in the Arabic text as found in the edition and insert full vocalization and full iʿrāb (as far as possible), i.e. short vowels, tašdīd, sukūn, madda and alif superscriptum.

a) taṭwīl:

  • If words are divided through brackets, a taṭwīl is necessary before and after the bracket, if the characters are connected: e.g.‫ َكَتَـ[ـب ‬ but ‫الْمَنْزِ[ل‬
  • If words/morphemes from different word-classes are written in one word in Arabic, they will be represented as one word on all layers, but as two or more words on the "Latinized" layer. In order to separate them during the uploading process, we use taṭwīls which are deleted immediately after, e.g.ِ‫بِـخَطِّـه ‬ (bi_ḫaṭṭi_hi) " in his (own) handwritting", َ‫َََوَـكَتَب‬ (wa_kataba) "and he wrote". In case of the article, no taṭwīl is needed in general, except in the following cases: firstly in conbination with the particles, that are connected to the following word: e.g. ﺍﻟْﺑَﻴْﺖ (albayt) but بِـالْـبَيْت (bi_ăl_bayt), وَـالْـبَيْت (wa_ăl_bayt), لِـلْـبَيْت (li_l_bayt), secondly for words starting with hamzat waṣl e.g. الِـاثْنَيْنِ (ăli_ĭṯnayni), thirdly if the article is not preceded by a space, but e.g. by a bracket.
  • If such a join between two lexical elements coincides with a bracket, the taṭwīl immediately preceding or following the bracket will be ignored by the uploading routine. Use two or more subsequent taṭwīls in that case, and remember to delete the superfluous ones later.

b) Sun- and Moonletters in combination with the article

  • Make sure you place a tašdīd on a Sunletter and a sukūn on the lām preceeding a Moonletter.

c) Hamzat al-Waṣl

  • We don't vocalize hamzat al-waṣl by the short vowels. (d.Feb.06)‬

d) Dotless letters

  • Dotless bā' , nūn, yā' etc. are represented by a bā' with three dots ( پ , normally combination Alt+F). (d.23)
  • Dotless qāf or fā' are represented by a qāf or fā' with three dots ( ڤ , normally combination Alt+T). (d.23)

e) Punctuation

  • Check the punctuation of the original text on the plates and describe it in detail (under remarks) (e.g. "line 4, word 5: kataba, tā' with two dots above" or "all fā' are dotted with one dot above" etc.).
  • yāʾ mamdūda is dotted: e.g. ‫فِي‬ but ‫َ‬مَوْلى

f) Non-plene writing

  • In case of defective writing, alif superscriptum is automatically added and we do not refer to a standardform. (d.May06)

1.2. Gaps, different readings etc.

  • Gaps (often lines or sections left empty in editions) are represented by asterisks (*). Three asterisks are used for a gap of unknown length. If is is more ore less obvious how many characters lack, insert the same amount of asterisks. (d.2)
  • If an unknown letter is connected from one both sides with preceding or following letters, ensure that the visible letters have the corresponding shape (initial, intermediate or final) by using taṭwīl before or after the asterisks or brackets. Only if the preserved letters are actually connected, of course. The Urdu characters ٹ and ڑ will not be needed anymore. (d. April 14, replacing d. 2)

a) Brackets

We use the system used by Diem and Khan in their recent publications. (d.17)

Please note: Words in double square brackets and curly brackets appear only in plain line - i.e. we do not list them in all layers nor are they lemmatised. (d.July06)

  • Single square brackets [ ]: text written by the scribe, but disappeared since, and completed by us. To be replaced by colours? e.g. red‬
  • Double square brackets 〚〛: erasures, deleted by the scribe and to be completed by us.‬ (Unicode 301A and 301B)
  • Round brackets (parentheses) (): the solutions of real abbreviations.
  • Angular brackets < >: text left out by the scribe, and completed by us.
  • Double angular brackets « »: Uncertain reading. (Unicode 00AB and 00BB)
  • Curly brackets { } text written by mistake. In case a misspelt word (in curly brackets) was corrected by the scribe himself, the correct word follows the misspelt one without brackets. Give in that case also a remark. (d.61)
  • If the editor corrected the word, put the corrected word in angular brackets. In future possibly grey?

Important: Avoid any pyramiding and interlacing of brackets! Double angular brackets may thus not appear within double square brackets anymore. (d.Oct.14)

b) Columns

If the text of a papyrus is divided into columns, type in the right column first (i.e. one line for each line in the right column) and then type in the left column (or the middle one and at last the left one). Name the line with "right", "middle" and "left". e.g. type in (line) 1, (line) 2, (line) 3 right, (line) 4 right, (line) 4 right, (line) 3 left, (line) 4 left, (line) 5 left, (line) 6, (line) 7 etc. (d.58)

c) taṭwīl

For a correct representation of the text in the database use a taṭwīl in the following cases:

  • If a line starts with asterisks, e.g. ـ *** وَـكَتَبَ ‬
  • If a line ends with asterisks, e.g. ‫‫فِي سَنَة *** ـ
  • If a line starts with brackets (taṭwīl and space before the bracket), e.g. ـ [عمر
  • If a line ends with brackets (taṭwīl and space and after the bracket), عمر] ـ

d) Abbreviations

The character(s) which represent an appreviation are enclosed by curly brackets. The solution of the abbreviation is added after it in round bracktes (parantheses). Abbreviations occur thus only on layer plain line. e.g. P.GrohmannProbleme 04:4 (d.Dec.06).

1.3 Seals

  • Documents with seals that contain a text: Text is added to the text of the document. Name it "Seal" by means of the operation "Replace Name of Lines". E.g. P.GrohmannUrkunden 8. (d.Oct.06)
  • Allot a line number to each line of text in seal. E.g. (1) muḥammadu bnu (2) sulaymāna. (d.July10)

1.4 Other Languages

a) Representation

If there are Greek or Latin elements in an Arabic text, note the following instruction for correct representation: (d.34)

  • Set at the beginning of the line a RLO-mark (Right-to-Left Override) to define the paragraph as beeing written in a right-to-left script (Arabic).
  • In front of a left-to-right part (Greek or Latin) insert a LRE-mark (Left-to-Right Embedding).
  • After the left-to-right part insert a PDF-mark (Pop Directional Format) in order to cancel the last direction-order (in our case Left-to-Right Embedding).
  • On layers "plain words", "full dots" and "full dots and vowels", put RLO, LRE, greek word, PDF into each field with greek letters. Same procedure for fields with asterisks, if the line contains greek signs. (d.Sept.11)

The marks for RLO, LRE and PDF can be found in the Unicode-division "General Punctuation": RLO = 202E, LRE = 202A, PDF = 202C In case of Arabic in a mainly Greek or Latin text, go to the same operation, but replace RLO by LRO (Left-to-Right Override) and LRE by RLE (Right-to-Left Embedding). PDF remains the same (LRO= 202D, RLE= 202B).

b) Numerals

  • Letters used as numerals are treated as numerals. If Greek or Coptic, we present them as usual in Greek or Coptic papyrology, e.g. in the latinized layer as 1/4 or 1/48 etc. (d.30)
  • The Greek numeral koppa representing 90 has in Unicode two variants, either 03DF "Greek small letter koppa" or 03D9 "Greek small letter archaic koppa". We will always use 03D9 "Greek small letter archaic koppa" for better representation with Lucida Grande. (d.May07)
  • The fraction sign ʹ is the "greek numeral sign", Unicode 0374. For fractions of carats, use ͵ "greek lower numeral sign", Unicode 0375. (d.Sept.11)
  • In lists, replace the Greek numeral letters by the sign ÷ and give as many of this signs as Greek numeral letters present. However, if single Greek numeral letters occur in Arabic context, they may be kept as Greek numeral letter. (d.Oct.12).

c) Bilingual documents or documents in other than Arabic scripts

  • We deal at the moment only with the Arabic part written in Arabic script. (d.27/Oct.14)
  • Write "line in Greek" or "phrase in Greek" (or Hebrew or Judaeo-Arabic etc. respectively) into the comment field of plain line. (d.Sept.10/Oct.14)
  • Greek, Hebrew etc. parts of a document are represented with three asterisks ***, independently of the number of words. Foreign languages in Arabic script will be vocalized tentatively and translitterated. In both cases, the text will be assigned to the lemma ***, the lemma-supplement indicating the language: 101 for Greek, 102 for Coptic, 103 for Judaeo-Arabic, 104 for Hebrew, 105 for Hebrew in Arabic script, 106 for Aljamiado, 107 for Castilian/Catalan words in Latin script, 108 for Latin in Arabic script, 109 for Latin, 110 for Persian, 111 for Turkish in Arabic script, 112 for Uighur script. (d. Oct. 14, update Nov. 17). See also "7 Spanish documents".
  • In case the Greek or Hebrew text consist only of one word (e.g. a name), we may reproduce it. It will also be lemmatised with the asterisks according to language as stated above. (d.Sept.10/Oct.14)

1.5 Translation

  • Type in the translation as given by the edition. Use the same orthography, punctuation etc. (d.3)
  • Use one line in your translation for each line of the Arabic original text.
  • Longer gaps are being substituted by three dots (...) or by the number of dots given by the editor. (d.48)
  • ß is not substituted by ss. (d.38)
  • Abbreviations, symbols etc. in the translation are followed by their dissolution in English in round brackets (parentheses) (). (d.37)
  • We dont express differences in the script as cursive vs. regular.
  • The ligature œ is substitutet by oe (d.June06)
  • In case of documents without translation in the edition: The APD-team processing the document may add a translation of its own but is not expected to do so. Give the abbreviation of the name (e.g. LS or UB) of the one translating in the long remark (see P.FahmiTaaqud). (d.Jan.13)
  • In case of documents with a contemporary translation on the document itself (e.g. Arabic document with Latin interlinear translation on the same document), refer to this translation in "long remarks" and give references within the document, if possible (e.g. line 3: line in Latin). However don't offer this "translation" as translation of the document (in field translation) as it is not done by an editor and we cannot be sure about its status, being a "real" translation or not. (d.Jan.13)

1.6 Remarks

  • Take care not to use any colon : in the remark fields, use rather round brackets. E.g. instead of saying Diem: xxxx, say xxxx (Diem). (d.Dec.14)
  • In case of quotation marks, don't use " "  but ‹› (Unicode 2039,203a). (d.Dec.14)

a) Handmarks

  • Abolishment of rule (d.Nov.14): give a remark like: "Line 2: handmark after ‫الْكِتَاب‬ " or "Line 2: handmark (cross) after ‫الْكِتَاب‬ " (d.54).
  • Represent and lemmatise the handmarks and symbols with the corresponding lemmata! Thus refer to a dot, slash, oblique cross that serves as place holder or checking mark with a asterisk * (supplement 1, word category: mark), especially if it is reproduced by the editor. Refer to a symbol or handmark (like crosses, circles, stars, triangles) with an asterisk * (supplement 2, word category: symbol). Give also a remark in plain words.
  • Follow the following standard for your remark: no colons, but a further specification in brackets. E.g. handmark (cross), magical sign (hexagram). (d.Nov.14)
  • In case of two or more marks: ** 1 for two marks; *** 21 for three or more marks.
    In case of two or more symbols: ** 2 for two symbols; *** 22 for three or more symbols. (Nov. 14)

b) Reference works

  • Fischer, W. 2002: A grammar of classical Arabic. New Haven: Yale University Press
  • Wehr, H. 1979: A dictionary of modern written Arabic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz
  • Diem, W. / Radenberg, H.-P. 1994: Dictionary. The Arabic Material of S.D. Goitein's. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz

2 Implementation

2.1 Metadata

  • Do not use any line breaks in the field for metadata (d.Jan.2017)

a) Names

  • Unique identifier: no whitespace, no umlaut, no diacritics, no colon, i.e. only A-Za-z0-9_-. Normally: name of the editor plus name that makes the document easily identifiable. E.g. Stern_AyyubidPetitions_05.
  • Names are given according to the ISAP-Checklist of Published Papyri and our internal full bibliography. No diacritics, e.g. P.RagibSauf-conduits 2 (and not P.RāġibSauf-conduits 2), and P.RemondonPapyrus 1 (and not P.RémondonPapyrus 1). As for the Umlaut: ä -> ae; ö -> oe; ü -> ue, e.g. P.MuellerBaybars. (d.March16, changing from "unusual diacritics" to completely no diacritics). There is however one exception to this rule: P.KölnKauf. has retained its Umlaut because P.Köln is also used as abbreviation in Greek papyrology.
  • In the metaupdate template, the name of the document is generated dynamically. Please fill in the single fields:
    [ln1] Edition: Name of edition without further specifications, e.g. P.Marchands; CPR; P.Ragib-Sauf-conduits
    [ln2] Volume Rom: Add a possible volume in Roman figures, e.g. VII. In case of sub-volumes, give the Roman figure, add a comma and then specify the sub-volume, e.g. V,1.
    [ln2] Volume Ar: Duplicate the entry in ln2volumerom but in Arabic figures, sub-volumes with a dot, e.g. 7 or 5.1. (This is important for sorting the documents)
    [ln3] Number: Numer of the document, e.g. 1 or 35. In case of documents comprising several editions (e.g. P.Cair.Arab. 224-225), just fill in the first number here and the second one in ln4addition with a "-" before it (without space character in between).
    [ln4] Addition: All kinds of additions.
    [ln5] Furtherpublication(s): Add reeditions here, e.g. CadellFragments 1.
    [ln6] Further name(s): Add here descriptions in catalogs etc., eg. PERF. (d.Nov.15)
  • In case of articles we use abbrevations according ot our internal bibliography. In case an article has not yet such an abbrevation, we define a new one and inform Andreas Kaplony.
  • In case of reeditions: Give the editio princeps and the following ones in brackets with a =, e.g. P.BeckerPAF 17 (= P.GrohmannAperçu p. 55 = P.Cair.Arab. 175). Add for each of the later editions an empty document referring in its name tp the editio princeps, in this case "P.GrohmannAperçu p. 55 see P.BeckerPAF 17" and "P.Cair.Arab. 175 see P.BeckerPAF 17". (d.Dec.10)
  • Papyri we are working on get a "0 in process:" in front of their names. (d.Feb.06) As soon as the editor has finished his/her work he will delete "0 in process:" in front of the name and add "(in process)" after the name. So it will be clear which documents can be checked by the supervisor. After final error-proof reading the "(in process)" will be deleted too. (d. Oct. 06).
  • List of editions: Before your team starts entering a new edition, write an e-mail to Eva Youssef and she will add the bibliographical information (plus short title) to the list, add your initials, and put "in progress", plus make the short title searchable in the database. As soon as the whole edition is proofread, send another e-mail to him and he will delete "in progress". (d.Oct.06).
  • Special case of P.Khalili I and P.Khalili II. Give in the name of P.Khalili I also the corresponding number of P.Khalili II (even though it is not an edition in strict sense). However, don't add an empty papyrus with "see" in this case. (d.April11)
  • Case of different texts edited under the same name and / or written on the same papyrus: If, for example, a letter and its reply to it on the same document are edited in one edition, we will nevertheless enter them as two documents into the database. If there is a labelling of the two texts in the edition itself, take over these labels to differentiate the two texts (e.g. "recto" and "verso"). However, if there are none such labels and "recto" and "verso" cannot be applied, add the small letters a b c etc. to the name of the edition in order to differentiate the texts. Make sure you type a blank space before a b c etc. (d.June11)
  • In case a document has been described (but not edited) by Karabacek, the PERF-number will appear as "Further name" in the detailed metadata after the title. Karabacek's german title appears as last title, although it may be the oldest, because it is no proper edition. In a similar way, variant readings of names in Karabecek's document description will be treated like variant readings in younger editions. (His description may be inserted in the "translation" field for clarification) (d. Aug. 14)
  • The case of CPR III (1,...): Grohmann's CPR III volume was designed as the first one of several subvolumes. However, the other volumes were never realised. Therefore, we refer to the edited documents in a short way without the sub-volumes, e.g. CPR III 57 or CPR III 130. However, when we refer to a page within one of the volumes, we will state the subvolume, e.g. CPR III 1,1 p. 50. If we have to refer to editions by page numbers, fill "1,1 p. ..." into ln4addition. (d.Nov.15)

b) Inventory Number

  • Give the inventory number according to the ISAP-Checklist of Published Papyri. No umlaut! E.g. P.Berl.inv.Arab. 24022 recto and verso (and in this case not "P. Berol. inv. 24022" as given by the editor.)
  • In new abbreviations for collections: "dot replaces space character", e.g. P.Gran.Bibl.Uni.inv. but P.Anawati inv. (d.June12)
  • Documents from Vienna (sometimes referred to as P.Vindob.) are either P.Vind.inv. A.P. xxxx (for papyrus), P.Vind.inv. A.Ch. xxxx (for paper), P.Vind.inv. A.L. xxx (for parchment) or P.Vind.inv. xxxx. Space betwwen inv. and A and before the number! (d.Dec.06)
  • Recto, verso are written completely, no abbrevations. Mention recto and verso if possible. If a text goes from recto to verso : "recto and verso", (don't forget to change name of lines!). In case of a description like "Rückseite leer", add "recto". (d.45)
  • Definition of recto and verso: In principle, recto is considered the side on which the papyrus was written first, independently of the orientation of the fibres (following the practice of Grohmann, see CPR III 1,1 p. 34). However, the orientation of the fibres may give an important hint regarding which text was written first (script perpendicular to the fibres for recto).
  • In case of parchment documents: "flesh side" (instead of recto) and "hair side" (instead of verso). (d.Feb.06)
  • In case of palimpsests write (secondary use). Ing case of a document that bears two different texts on one side, add (primary use) to the first one and (secondary use) to the second one, e.g. P.Heid.Inv.Arab. 120 recto and verso (primary use) vs. P.Heid.Inv.Arab. 120 verso (secondary use). (d.Oct.2010
  • If a document consists of two or more parts which have different inventory numbers, the two are mentioned with a + in between. (d.May.06)
  • If two different texts are written on the same papyrus, for example the second between the lines of the first one, we treat them as two texts and mention after inventory number in brackets (primary use) and (secondary use). Example: P.Prag.Arab. Beilage II. (d.March07), however if the second text is intrinsically dependent on the first one (e.g. short note by official for further procedure) we will not disconnect the two documents. (d.Dec.10)
  • In case of fragments given by the collection one and the same inventory number, we distinguish between the single documents (1) as the collection does, or (2) as the editor does. Example: CPR XVI 5, i.e. P.Vind.inv. A.P. 1545 a + P.Vind.inv. A.P. 1545 b (D. Febr. 2010).

c) Material

papyrus, paper, ostrakon, woodtable, waxtable, stone, parchment, leather, bone, textile

d) Height and Width

  • In case of fragments considered by the editor as being part of one and the same document, we consider the total width and length. However, for documents torn apart in length, add lengths only, for those thorn apart in width, widths only. Example: CPR XVI 5 (d. Febr. 2010).
  • Numbers rounded, without decimal place. 10.4 will be rounded 10, 10.5 will be rounded 11.

e) Dating

  • In the field "Date as on document" only dates mentioned in the papyrus itself are inserted. Do not copy it from the title/document description found in editions. Typically the structure of the entry will be: „13. ramaḍān 217 AH“ or „Saturday, last day of rabīʿ I 423 AH“ (i.e. with a dot after the numeral, the Arabic month according to the transliteration in the lexicon layer, AH in the end if apparently dating according to the Muslim calendar.)
  • In case a date is mentioned that is not the date of the creation of the papyri (e.g. date of delivery of certain goods) we insert "before" and the mentioned date in the papyrus, if it is not dated itself. (d.Feb.06)
  • If the text is dated twice, we mention both dates and equate them, e.g. 17 Mecheir 413 AH ḫarāǧī = last day of ḏū ăl-qaʿdaẗ 414 AH" (d.Feb.06). The Coptic months are written according to the Coptologists's conventions (see below) and not in their Arabic version. (d.Dec.10)
  • If the dating in the text is damaged and only part of it is readable, we will give a time span, e.g. "411-419 AH" (if only four hundred and ten was readable) or, if supplemented by the editor, the number in angular bracktes, e.g. [3]10 AH. (d.Dec10)

In the fields in table form below the following conventions apply

  • Conversion to Christian dating by the use of Johannes' program for the conversion of dates. Unlike the fields labelled „as on document“, all fields i.e. day, month, begin and end will need to be filled. (d.July17)
  • If the dating specifies one day (and not a period) we insert the same day in the fields "begin" and "end" of the table (d.Feb.15, abolishment of d.Oct.06 saying we insert the date only in the "begin" fields of the table).
  • If there are several texts, the date of the Arabic text counts. (d.26)
  • "Last day of ...": according to Johannes' program of conversion of dates. (d.Feb.06)
  • Hijra-dates are only filled in in the table "Date on document (Hijra)"-table, if they appear in the text itself. If a year is given, the year (and only the year, without days and months) is inserted in the table. If a month is given as well in the text, the month is added. The table "Date on document (Hijra) (end)" will thus only be used in cases, where the Arabic text is ambiguous, e.g. giving ǧumādà without the specification first or second. The date ǧumādà 324 AH will be rendered as follows:"Date on document (Hijra) (begin)": Day: 0, Month: 5, Year: 324. "Date on document (Hijra) (end)": Day: 0, Month: 6, Year 324. (d.Nov.07)
  • "9th century": 1.1.801-31.12.900, no conversion to Hijra-dates, as Hijra-dates must be due to dates contained in the document itself (d.July06).
  • "Beginning of 9th century" or "Early 9th century": 1.1.801-31.12.830, no conversion to Hijra-dates (d.July06).
  • "End of 9th century": 1.1.871-31.12.900, no conversion to Hijra-dates (d.July06).
  • "Mid of 9th century": 1.1.831-31.12.870, no conversion to Hijra-dates (d.July06).
  • "About 900": 1.1.871-31.12.930, no conversion to Hijra-dates (d.April11).
  • "About 1078" (date not on document but deduced from internal evidence, e.g. a person mentioned appears on another, dated, document): time slot of 30 years before and after the mentioned date, in this case: 1.1.1049-31.12.1108, no conversion to Hijra-dates (d.April11).
  • "Terminus ante quem" with opistography: Give a time window of 60 years before the date (sharp). E.g. 15.3.872 - 14.3.932 (this being the date appearing on the other side of the papyrus) (d.July12)
  • "Terminus post quem" with opistography: Give a time window of 60 years after the date (sharp). (d.July12) E.g. 15.3.872 (this being the date appearing on the other side of the papyrus) - 14.3.932
  • In case a date is mentioned which is not the date of composition of the text (e.g. the date on which a debt falls due, which is generally within a year after the witnessing took place), we insert it into the table as if it WAS the date of the papyrus. (d. May 14)
  • If a document is dated by the editor as 3rd/9th century or similar, we take only the Christian dating, e.g. 1.1.801-31.12.900, no conversion to Hijra-dates. (d.July06)
  • If a document is dated by the editor as 3rd century or similar (only estimated Hijra-dating), we nevertheless take only Christian dating, e.g. 1.1.801-31.12.900, although 3rd century A.H. does not correspond exactly to 9th century CE (d.Oct06)
  • If the day of the week is mentioned, but the given date does not correspond to the mentioned day of the week, we will make the CE date match the weekday (if possible), while the fields labelled „as on document“ will be faithful to the document, however inconsistent that may be. Be aware that a consistent muslim calendar does in no way depend on Wüstenfeld’s schedules or Thomann’s online tool. (d.Aug.17)
  • "Day of the week": Insertion of the first two letters of the day of the week: Su, Mo, Tu, We, Th, Fr, Sa. (d.Feb.06)
  • Important! Every document should be dated, if there is absolutely no hint regarding its dating we have to resort to 1. 1. 632 to 31. 12. 1517 CE (d.July06)
  • In cases there is no date mentioned but the writing material is papyrus, we assign as date 1. 1. 632 to 31. 12. 1000 CE, in case of paper 1. 1. 800 to 31. 12. 1517 CE. (Example: P.GrohmannWorld p. 152 a) (d.Nov07, abolition of May07)
  • If the preserved text is a dated copy, e.g. of a legal instrument, we consider the date of the copy as the relevant one and insert it in the numeric table, while both dates should be mentioned in the text-field "Date as on document". In addition, the original date can be mentioned in the title of the document.


f) Coptic months

1 Toth; 2 Phaophi; 3 Hathyr; 4 Choiak; 5 Tybi; 6 Mecheir; 7 Phamenoth; 8 Pharmuthi; 9 Pachons; 10 Payni; 11 Epeiph; 12 Mesore: 13 Epagomenal days

g) Kind (d.41), broad categories! (d.63)

  • If a document can be assigned more than one category, separate the categories by a semicolon ";". Make then sure that you start each kind by a capital letter, because the search-function on the papyri-site is case sensitve. (d.June07)
  • If the assignment of kind is difficult because the document is too fragmentary, add a question mark behind the most possible category. (d.June07)

I. Protocol

II. Legal text

  • Act of emancipation
  • Marriage contract (also secondary documents to contracts of marriage (d.63))
  • Divorce document
  • Inheritance document
  • Contract of sale
  • Lease
  • Hires of employees
  • Written obligation
  • Order for payment or delivery
  • Receipt for payment or delivery
  • Waqfiyya
  • Deed of gifts (ṣadaqāt)
  • Signatures of witnesses
  • Certificate of discharge
  • Responsum (fatwà)
  • Other legal text

III. Administrative text

  • Official letter, administrative document
  • Official declaration
  • Petition
  • List, account
  • Other administrative document
  • Registration (kitāb siǧill)

IV. Private text

  • Private letter
  • Business letter
  • Prayer
  • Note
  • Amulet
  • Astrological text
  • Prescription (= medical recipe)
  • Receipt for payment
  • Other private document

V. Literary text

VI. Drawing

h) Language

Arabic, Greek/Arabic, or Arabic/Greek (according to which language was first), Arabic/Coptic etc. (d.April11)

i) Content/Title

  • Fill in itle of the document as given by the editor
  • In case of English titles with capital letters: write them with small letters, thus like a normal text. (d.March07)
  • In case of different editions: give them with a semicolon ";" in between. (d.September 10)

j) Edition

  • Last name of the editor - comma - name of edition - number of document, e.g. Rāġib, P.Marchands III 12.
  • No zero in front of numbers, e.g. Becker, PAF 1
  • In case of articles, which contain the name of the editor: Last name of editor - name - name of edition without P., name of editor and abbreviation, e.g. instead of "Grohmann, P.GrohmannWirtsch. 5" we write "Grohmann, Wirtschaftsgeschichte 5"
  • The remark by an expert, etc., quoted: name of the expert - in - main edition, e.g. Day in Kraemer, P.Ness. 56 (d.June09)
  • In case of different editions: give them with a semicolon ";" in between. (d.September 10)

k) Style of writing, ligatures

  • maġribin: notation of qāf, fāʾ: remark in metadates: ligatures: maġribī. (d.39) (abolished Oct.2010)
  • What we cannot record, we give as a comment to plain words. E.g. both qāf with one dot above, first sīn with dash above, šīn with three dots side by side above, ṭāʾ without vertical stroke, yāʾ with two dots above (considered as punctuated yāʾ). In addition remark in brackets maġribī etc. Alif with three dots below is considered as a kind of ornament. (d.49)

l) Place of origin

  • Transliteration according to our lexicon layer. So: "ăl fayyūm" and not "al-Fayyūm". (d.March.06)
  • Important! Every document should be assigned a place of origin, default "Egypt" (d.July06)
  • ʾašmūn is always rendered as ʾušmūn, even if the editor reads and translates Ashmun. (d.Oct.10)
  • In case of unsure provenance(s): add a question mark right after the name and separate multiple suggestions with semicola, e.g. ăl fayyūm?; Upper Egypt? (d.Dec.10)
  • Viennese collection: In cases there is no place of origin mentioned by the editor, but the signature hints at the piece's belonging to the first Fayyum find, we assume madīnaẗ ăl fayyūm and ʾihnās respectively as places of origin and assign "madīnaẗ ăl fayyūm, ʾihnās? (first Fayyum find)" in the medatada. (d.May07)
  • Choose always a provenance from the pull-down menu (otherwise your document will not appear on the "surface"). In case your provenance is not yet in the pull-down, write an email to the colleague in charge. (since 2013)

m) Images

  • Name of Editor - comma - name of edition - "pl." - number of plate, e.g. Grohmann, P.Cair.Arab. III pl. VI
  • If there is a further specification of the plate, do not attach it immediately but with a space character, e.g. pl. 10 c not pl. 10c (d.Oct.06)
  • Plates with no separate pagination are given as "pl. after p. 128", or even "1st pl. after p. 128", "2nd pl. after p. 128", e.g. "Dietrich, Eheurkunde 1st pl. after p. 128" (d. Jan.10).

n) Translations

  • Last name of the editor - comma - name of edition - number of document, e.g. Rāġib, P.Marchands III 12.
  • In case of articles, which contain the name of the editor: Last name of editor - name - name of edition without P., name of editor and abbreviation, e.g. instead of "Grohmann, P.GrohmannWirtsch. 5" we write "Grohmman, Wirtschaftsgeschichte 5"
  • The remark by an expert, etc., quoted: name of the expert - in - main translation, e.g. Day in Kraemer, P.Ness. 56 (d.June09)

o) Emendations

  • If the editor mentions new readings or gives important comments concerning the Arabic text of another document, refer to this in the "Emendations" section of the metadata of this second document. Thus, if Diem in his Aphrodito article suggests a new reading in P.Heid.Arab. I 1, mention this in the metadata of P.Heid.Arab. I 1 with (in this case) " Diem, Aphrodito p.253f". Refer beside the edition also always to the page. (d.May.07)
  • If the emendation appeared in a review, the typical reference will be: Diem, Review P.Khalili I p. 50 (and not only Diem, Khalili I p. 50). (d.April11).

p) Scribes

  • Name of scribe according to our transliteration in the lexicon layer, e.g. "ʿalī ĭbn hibat ăl lāh ĭbn ḫalaf ĭbn muḥammad ĭbn šaraf ăl miṣrī" (d.Feb.06)
  • Give only the scribe of the document if explicitely mentioned, e.g. wa kataba fulān. This will typically concern legal documents or official letters. So, don't give the names of all witnesses (the witnesses' subscription may however tell you who the actual scribe of the document was) and don't give the name of the sender of a private letter! (d.April11)

q) Long remark

  • Use this field to give comments like "Brackets checked against scan of original" or "Brackets follow the edition by Rāġib". Give as few information as possible. (d.Oct.2010).

2.2 Layers

  • Variant readings are subscript. (d.24)
  • Order in case of several columns: numbering as in the edition, but arrangement according to unity of sense (Sinneinheit), i.e. one column after the other. (d.60)
  • Give a remark if the variant reading was not suggested by the editor of the document himself. The remark will have the following structure: Variant reading by you: Give your abbreviation without bracket nor full stop. e.g.: AK. not (AK). Variant reading by a second editor or another person (must be mentioned in the field "Emendations" in Metadata): Give his last name (with diacritics, without brackets, without full stop), e.g.: Rāġib. In case the same editor gives different readings in different editions, give a remark like: Margoliouth, P.Ryl.Arab. I. Remarks will only contain brackets, if they consist of a statement and a reference. E.g.: Grohmann erroneously xy, but see transalation and plate. (LS) (d.Sept.10, d.Oct.10)
  • Variant readings of erased words: Text in double square brackets 〚 〛 appears only in plain line. Therefore, if a second editor has a variant within the erased part, give it as a line reference to plain line. However, do not give the whole line but only one word before and after the variant. Give the variant with full punctuation, as it appears in the edition of the second editor. (d.May11)

2.2.1 Scan

2.2.2 Translation

  • In case of different editions and thus more than one translation: Give a reference with the name of the editor to the not-primary translation, e.g. (R āġib). However, if it is evident from the languages who has written which translation, abstain from a reference. (d.Jan07)

2.2.3 Plain line

  • Final qāf, fāʾ and nūn will be punctuated from layer plain line on, because their shape is unambigous. (d.8)
  • punctuation marks (Satzzeichen) are not omited. From layer plain words on they count as a word for themselves. (d.36)
  • Problem of Greek Letters in Arabic text: The text will be displayed correctly if we insert at the beginning of the line the Symbol Right-to-left-override (Unicode 202E) manually, i.e. not before the implmenting but after. (d.July06)
  • Columns in a table (e.g. accounts) are marked by vertical bars | (alt+7 on the Swiss keyboard) in layer plain line (and only there). In case of text that is arranged in columns see chapter 1.2.b). (d.Dec.06)
  • If text is erased or crossed through we distinguish two cases: The first one is the "normal" one, where double angular brackets are used and the word is only represented in layer plain line. These are the cases, where the scribe himself CORRECTED the text. The second case is where the scribe crossed lines through because a transaction has been accomplished or a debt has been paid (see e.g. P.QuseirArab. 64). Give in this case a reference in plain line as "Line crossed through". The words however appear on ALL layers. (d.Nov.07)
  • In case we need to insert tatwīls to fix the position of brackets, asterisks etc., we give the tatwīl with a space after (or before at the end of the line). (d.Sept.10)
  • If the editor cannot read a name and substitutes it thus by ‫فلان‬ fulān, we will nevertheless represent it with three asterisks. Lemma fulān appears only in theses cases where the scribe himself wrote fulān (e.g. P.Marchands I 12 recto 12). (d.Dec.10)

2.2.4 Plain words

  • If final qāf, fāʾ or nūn is punctuated, please give a reference (see below "References").
  • Words over two lines are assigned to the first line from layer plain words on. (d.25)
  • In case of misplaced dots, add reference, as e.g. "dot of ǧīm misplaced under yāʾ (P.Cair.Arab. 71.20). (d. June 10)

2.2.5 Words with full dots

  • Completion of punctuation and hamza (also madda!). In case of floating hamza insertion of a tooth. (d. June06) More on Hamza-Problems see "Lexical entries".

2.2.6 Words with full dots and vowels

  • completion of alif superscriptum only in this layer. (d.March06, abolishment of d.13)
  • see also chapter 1.1

2.2.7 Latinized words, transcription

  • alif maqṣūra: à, alif mamdūda: ā (d.11)
  • vocal of alif al-waṣl: ă, ĭ, ŭ (d.12). No vocalisation in "words with full dots and vowels".
  • alif maqṣūra in context if written as a tooth without dot :à. E.g. akrà + hā: akràhā. If written as alif mamdūda: ā. (d.50)
  •  ‭‫عافوك‬ instead of ‫عافاك‬ is transcribed as ʿāfā ka, parallel to ‫صلوة‬. (d.Oct.06)‭
  • The imperative of ʾamara is mur, in case of ‫وأمر‬ wa ʾmur. (d.Oct.06)
  • "Sprossvokale" are written in the layer "latinized words" and in "words with full dots and vowels" with the exeption of cases like muḥammad:ini ăl..... which cannot be represented well in "words with full dots and vowels". (d.Feb.06)
  • Tāʾ-marbūṭa in non-final position (i.e. with object-suffix) is written as a normal tāʾ in the layer "latinized words".
  • letters used as numerals are treated as numerals. If Greek or Coptic, we present them as usual in Greek or Coptic papyrology, e.g. in the latinized layer as 1/4 or 1/48 etc. (d.30)
  • Undeciphered Arabic words are nevertheless transliterated. An unpunctuated tooth is represented as "B", unpunctuated fāʾ or qāf as "F". (P.Köln.Kauf. :5). (d.Feb.06).
  • Letter ح is transliterated ḥ and not Ḥ. (d.Sept. 10)
  • The persomal pronoun أنا is transcribed ʾanā (and not ʾana). (d. Oct. 10)
  • The transcription of īy is iyy in all cases. (d.June15)
  • Undeciphered words are assigned a lemma with three asterisks (***) irrespective of the actual number of letters . If the word cateogry and domain is not known, assign *** with supplement 1. If the word category and domain is known, choose the lemma *** with the according supplement:

    *** 1: we don't know anything

    *** 2: unknown name of a person (male or female): n., prop.pers.

    *** 3: unknown noun: n.

    *** 4: unknown numeral (Greek or Arabic): n., numeral

    *** 5: unknown verb: verb

    *** 6: unknown adjective: adj.

    *** 7: unknown name of place: n., prop.loc.

    *** 8: unknown name of a tribe: n., prop.trib

    *** 9: unknwon name of month: n., month

    *** 10: unknown personal pronoun: pron.

    *** 11: unknown currency: n., currency

    *** 12: unknown profession: n., profession

    *** 13: unknown measure: n., measure

    *** 14: unknown day of the week: n., day of the week

    *** 15: unknown preposition: prep.

Special Cases always to be changed manually (d. Oct. 10)

  • ʾinn ī and ʾann ī to ʾin nī and ʾan nī (but please take care not to change ʿann ī into ʿan nī!)
  • ʿala yya and ʾila yya to ʿalay ya and ʾilay ya
  • the insertion of the epenthetical short vowels, ĭ, and ŭ
  • the ă in the article if the article was not on the first position in the word
  • the insertion of a short i after tanwīn ending and a following hamzat al-waṣl, e.g. muḥammad:ini ăn nabiyyi
  • the removal of the orthographical alif in the word hundred, e.g. miاʾaẗ to miʾaẗ.
  • dotted alif maqṣūra: Vocalised with Fatḥa (without reference) but written as normal alif maqṣūra à in layer Latinized and not as ay.
  • the removal of ʾalif maqṣūra in indetermined nouns, e.g. in "wa kullu daʿw:an"

3 Lemmatising

3.1 Lexicon

3.1.1 Transcription

  • qāḍī: lemmatised as qāḍī (not qāḍin) (d.51)
  • names as Šanūdah, that carry apparently a tāʾ marbūṭa: We assign a tāʾ marbūṭa to the lemma, thus šanūdaẗ (d.47). However, within the Arabic text, the version of the editor is retained, whether it is šanūdaẗ or šanūdah, both of which are assigned to the lemma šanūdaẗ. (May11)
  • names with plene- and non-plene spelling: plene-spelling as standardform. (d.40) Word categories (old ones!)

  • adj.; adv.; conj.; dem.pron.; interr.pron.; n.; n. (collective); n. (colour); n. (currency); n. (day of the week); n. (instrument); n. (measure); n. (month); n. (profession); n. (title); n. (weight); n.prop.loc.; n.prop.pers.; n.prop.trib.; neg.; num.; participle act.; participle pass.; particle; pers.pron.; prep.; rel.pron.; verb Word categories (new ones! Since 2014)

Word cateogries are assigend functionally:

  • adj. (adjective)
  • adv. (adverb)
  • conj. (conjunction)
  • det. (determinant, comprises former dem.pron.)
  • interr. (interrogation word, comprises former interr. pron.)
  • mark (graphical marking, completely new)
  • n. (noun)
  • neg. (negation)
  • particle
  • participle act. (participle act., only functionally assigned not formally!)
  • participle pass. (participle pass., only functionally assigned not formally!)
  • prep. (preposition)
  • pron. (pronoun, comprises former pers.pron.)
  • rel. (relativizer, comprises former rel.pron.)
  • symbol
  • verb (verb)

As for the active participle: it typically expresses an temporally limited action or a temporally limited attriubute to a noun (if it is constructed as an adjective). Download a pdf here with some examples. Domain (Since 2014)

Domains are assigned semantically:

  • collective
  • colour
  • currency
  • day of the week
  • instrument
  • measure
  • month
  • numeral
  • profession
  • prop.loc. (name of a location)
  • prop.pers. (name of a person)
  • prop.trib. (name of a tribe)
  • tax
  • title
  • weight

Be aware of the different possibilities of combination between word category and domain, e.g.: ʾabyaḍ: adj., colour; bayāḍ: n., colour.
muḥammad ăl ǧaʿfarī: muḥammad: n., prop.pers.; ǧaʿfarī: adj., prop.pers. Shape (Since 2014)

Shape is assigned formally.

  • Assign a shape if the word is formed by an Arabic root (thus no Coptic or Spanish loanwords that coincidentally follow one of the Arabic patterns).
  • Assign ø if the word is clearly not formed by an Arabic root.
  • If you are uncertain whether a certain word (especially name) is of Arabic origin or not, or if yo don't know what shape to assign, leave the field empty.
  •  Double lemmata (consisting of more than one element) are not included.
  • Shapes are assigned in Latin characters, thus faʿīl, ĭftaʿala, tafʿīl etc.
  • Be aware of the underlining patterns in case of words with weak or doubled roots! E.g. ʾakram, ʾaǧall and ʾaqṣà are all assigned ʾafʿal, maǧbūr and marʿī both mafʿūl, ḍaraba, ḥaǧǧa and ḫāṭa all faʿala. Have a look at Wright's grammar if you are not sure what to assign (or watch out for parallel cases).
  • Words with nisba are assigned "nisba", e.g. rubāʿī, ʿabbāsiyyaẗ

3.1.3 Standardlemma

  • The field "standardlemma" will be used only in cases where the lemma is of the mentioned type 4 in the list "Crossreferences". (d.May06)

3.1.4 Facultative commentary

  • This field may be used for all kind of internal comments that ease our work. It appears in editlinedata and in the editlemmata but never on the "surface" of the database.
  • This field should be used if a lemma was not attested neither in Wehr, Diem or other dicitonaries. Give a commentary like "not attested in the usual dictionaries". (d.May06)

3.1.5 Coptic months

  • Thoth: tūt
  • Phaophi: bābih
  • Hathyr: hātūr
  • Choiak: kiyahk
  • Tybi: ṭūbih
  • Mecheir: ʾamšīr
  • Phamenoth: baramhāt
  • Pharmuthi: barmūdih
  • Pachons: bašans
  • Payni: baʾūnih
  • Epeiph: ʾabīb
  • Mesore: misrà

In case of Arabic variants - please insert a crossreference!

3.1.6 Lemma supplements

  • In case of homonyms, assign the most basic meaning supplement 1, and the other meaning supplement 2 (or 3 or higher with several homonyms). This concerns especially personal names, that will be assigned supplement 2, and their homonym adjecttive, particple or noun supplement 1 (even though the personal noun is much more often attested in the database).
  • Since July 2011, no empty supplements are allowed with homonyms. Thus, if you enter a new lemma being homonym to an already existing lemma, make sure you distribute supplement 1 and 2 according to the rule given above. To change a supplement, go to "list of lemmata with variants".
  • Don't be too hesitant in assigning supplements, thus distinguishing between different meanings of a word (it's easier to merge later on than to differenciate). However, give a commentary, if meanings differ greatly from what is given in a traditional dictionary (this concerns mainly Spanish documents). (d.April2013)

3.1.7 Greek and Coptic names and equivalents

  • If the editor refers in the commentary to a Greek or Coptic pendant or source of a name or term, add it with a crossreference to the Arabic lemma. The Crossref-Comment will be "see". Choose the main lemma, if there are variants, unless the Greek oder Coptic name refers very obviously to a specific variant.
  • Type Greek and Coptic both only with small letters. Please use the Coptic unicode section and not the Greek one. Greek is written without accents and spiritus. In case of iota subscriptum give two Crossrefs, one with iota under the vocal and one without iota.
  • To display Greek and Coptic script: see "New Athena" ond .(d.Nov.11)

3.1.8 Modifying and merging of lemmata

  • For modifying a lemma: go to "List of Lemmata" (listlemmata.jsp) and change the lemma there. (d.June15)
  • For merging: First change the wrong lemma on listlemmata.jsp. It should now be exactly like the other lemma to merge with (also same supplement number). Go then to "Edit double lemmata" (doublelemmata.jsp). The two lemmata should appear in the list. Click on "show" and check again before clicking on "Merge lemmaunits and delete second lemma". Check after that in lemmalookup.jsp whether all the details are correct and make sure the lemma does not have a supplement assigned if it is the only one now (if it has, go again to listlemmata.jsp and remove the supplement there). (d.June15)

3.2 Lemma units

3.2.1 Form of lemma units

Please note: There are special cases, which cause that not all slots are filled.

Nouns, participles, adjectives, numerals: four slots:

  • gender: m. f.
  • number: sg. du. pl.
  • case: nom. acc. gen.
  • determination: det. indet. constr.

Verbs: five slots: person.gender.number.tense.diathesis. In first person forms gender is omitted

  • person: 1.2.3.
  • gender: m. f.
  • number: sg. du. pl.
  • tense: perf. imp. imperf. conj. apoc. energ.
  • diathesis: act. pass.

Personal pronouns: four slots:

  • person: 1.2.3.
  • gender: m. f.
  • number: sg. du. pl.
  • case: nom. acc. gen.

No assignation of gender to humā, kumā, naḥnu, ʾantumā

Demonstrative pronouns, relative pronouns: four slots:

  • gender: m. f.
  • number: sg. du. pl.
  • case: nom. acc. gen.
  • determination: det. indet.

Particles, negations, prepositions, unread words, composed expressions: assignation of form ø = Latin small letter o with stroke, Unicode 00F8 (d. Aug. 14)

  • words with invariant forms for nom., gen. and acc., resp. nom. vs. obl.: we nevertheless assign cases nom., gen. and acc. according to their syntactical function. (abolishment of d.56)
  • In case of a error message "lemma not found" although the lemma exists, look up the lemma again and click on the update-button. Then try again. If this does not work: Look for the lemma in a search-site, copy and paste it into editlemmaunits. Then try again.

3.2.2 Numbers

Number hundred

  • ‭The number hundred is written in many different ways. From layer words with full dots on we write it either as ‫مئة‬ or ‫مائة‬ , i.e. we insert the hamza. e.g. ‫مايتين‬ we write as ‫مائتين‬ and ‫ماتين‬ as ‫مائتين‬. ّIf the alif is omitted in the Arabic script, we omit it also. If there are not enough teeth to add hamza, we will add a tooth in this only case. (d.May06)
  • If the tooth of مايه is dotted, the lemma will be miyaẗ, with standardlemma miʾaẗ and crossreference to miʾaẗ (Aug.10)

Numbers from 11 to 19

  • Each component is lemmatised twice, as single word an as expression. As single components the first one is lemmatised as acc.constr. and the second component as gen.indet. (In case of 12: The first part is lemmatised as nom., acc. or gen.) The expression as a whole gets its case-assignment according to its syntactical position.
  • Numbers from three to ten with Ta-marbūṭa are lemmatised as f. and those without Ta-marbūṭa as m.. (d.March06)
  • References to standardforms are only given in the first lemmatising, viz. not in the lemmatising as an expression. (d.August06)
  • The number as expression is assigned the form ø, hence no gender (d. Aug. 14, replacing d. Nov. 12)
  • ʿašara which is written as ‫اعشر‬ is transcribed as ĭʿšara (according to Hopkins). (d.August06)
  • Be aware of the different vocalisation of ‫عشر‬ and ‫عشرة‬, thus ʿašru banāt:in but ṯalāṯaẗa ʿašara raǧul:an and ʿašaraẗu riǧāl:in but ṯalāṯa ʿašraṯa bint:an.(July10)

3.2.3. Collectiva

  • "n. (collective)" as a new category, containing the nomen unitatis as well (which has no seperate lemma-entry). (d.Feb.06)
  • The collective noun is assigned the form, its broken plural, the nomen unitatis gets the form its sound plural (d.Feb.06)

3.2.4 Lacunae

  • ***: we don't know anything
  • ***2: n.prop.pers. unknown name of a man.
  • ***3: adj.
  • ***4: n.prop.pers. unknown name of a woman
  • ***5: num.
  • ***6: n. unknown name of a month

3.2.5 Multiple lemmatising

  • For composita like names of places or persons and the numbers from 11 to 19 (see corresponding chapter).
  • Double lemmatising only for non-trivial compositions. The components of the kunya (i.e. ʾabū so-and-so) will only be lemmatised once. (d. Oct. 10)
  • The article will not be lemmatised in this way any more (e.g. ʿabd ăl muʾmin. Only ʿabd and muʾmin get a multiple lemmatising). (d.May06)
  • Abolishment of (d.Oct.14):The roots of each compoment will be given with a comma in between (plus space after the comma). (d.July06)
    Replaced by: No roots are given for lemma with multiple components (d.Oct.14).
  • Give a crossreference (see Crossref, Type 3) (d.July06)
  • The expression as a whole will be assigned the form ø (d. Aug. 14)

3.2.6 Magic

  • Combinations of characters as magical expressions (e.g. yā sīn): Lemmatising as if it was a word. E.g. Lemma "ys", Root "ys", Word category "n.", Translation "Yāsīn", Lemmaunit "ys", Form: "ø". (see P.Bad V 147.1) (d.Oct.06)
  • Abolishment of (d.Oct.14): Magical signs (i.e. not identifiable but peculiar figures with a particular shape), magical illustrations (such as dogs, scorpions) or well known "magical signs" as pentacles or hexacles (is this English?) will be represented by ◦ (Unicode white bullet, 25E6) in the respecting line. Give as much bullets as there are sings (e.g. P.Bad. V 160.7). If the exact number is not known or identifiable put the aprroximate number. The APD user will thus remark that there are special signs in a given line. Give additionally in "plain line" a reference: "scorpion", "dog", "magical sign" etc. (e.g. P.Bad. V 162) (d.Oct.06)
    Is being replaced by: Refer to a symbol or handmark (like crosses, circles, stars, triangles) with an asterisk * (supplement 2, word category: symbol). Give also a remark in plain words. (d.Oct.14)

3.3 Problematic cases

3.3.1 Problem of "mistakes"

  • First case: Something is missing, e.g. an ʾalif in acc. position after a indet. m. noun. No vocalization of the ending of the noun and no assignment of case. Of course a reference to the standardform, which should be assigned the appropriate case. (d.Feb.06)
  • Second case: Something is there which should not be there, e.g. ʿišrūna instead of ʿišrīna. Assignation of the form, which is there, although it is "wrong" according to the rule of classical Arabic. Reference to the standardform, which should be assigned the appropriate case. (d.Feb.06)
  • Third case: miʾatay instead of miʾatayni and the like. Assignation of the form, which is there, although it is "wrong" according to the rule of classical Arabic (in this case constr.). Reference and assignation of the standardform. (d.Feb.06)
  • A double lemmatising is possible if a word is "wrong" concerning different aspects, e.g. ʾabṭà instead of ʾabṭaʿà instead of ʾabṭaʾat. The first entry will thus be ʾabṭà with standardform ʾabṭaʾà and form and the second entry ʾabṭà with standardform ʾabṭaʾat , form and standardformform . Another example: taʿlamū instead of taʿlamūna instead of taʿlamna. First entry will be taʿlamū, standardform taʿlamūna, form,, standardformform The second entry will be taʿlamū, standardform taʿlamna, form,, standardformform
  • The case of non-contracted apocopate-forms: e.g. yastaṭīʿ instead of yastaṭiʿ. Put a sukūn at the end of yastaṭī and assign the form, then give the standardform yastaṭi.ʿ(April11)
  • In case a missspelt/"wrong" punctuated word is reflecting a non-standard form, i.e. tafaṭṭal instead of tafaḍḍal or ʾatbit insted of ʾaṯbit, an own lemma for the non-standard form is created. Give in the lemma-entry of the non-standard lemma also the corresponding standard-lemma (but not in the standard-form of the lemma unit!). Create cross-refs as well. (d.July07)
  • In case of "wrong" concordance regarding gender that is applied systematically (e.g. ăd dār ăllaḏī etc.), lemmatise the noun according to the given concordance with a standardformform showing the "right" gender. In this case [ ->]. (d.Nov.10)
  • In case of "wrong" concordance of adjectives regarding the plural of non-humans: Give a standardform with (even with animals). (d.July12)

3.3.2 li-la problem

  • Lemma la: la as particle (often afer ʾinna in front of the predicate, in the apodosis to law and law lā, particle of oath)
  • Lemma li: li as preposition (after nominal elements)
  • Lemma li 2: li as conjunction with conjunctive ("damit, auf dass, um zu")
  • Lemma li 3: li as conjunction with apocopate (command or request, li-yaktub, wa-l-yaktub, fa-l-yaktub)

3.3.3 Problem of plene or non-plene writing

  • Instertion of alif superscriptum in layer full dots and vowels in case of non-plene writing.
  • In case of plene writing of short vowels: We retain them and add a corresponding lemma (with standardlemma and crossreferences). (d.Dec.10).
  • This concerns in a broader semse also cases like yastaṭīʾ instead of yastaṭiʾ. Put a sukūn at the end of yastaṭīʾ and assign the form, then give the standardform yastaṭiʾ.(April11)
  • The cases of ‫يابا‬ and ‫ياخي‬ are handled as follows: put an alif superscriptum on the initial yāʾ and add a hamza on the alif. In layer latinized thus yā ʾabā and yā ʾaḫī. (May11)

3.3.4 Problem of hamza

  • Although we try to stick as close to the edition as possible, we will substitute long vocals by hamza if possible regarding the rasm. So even though the editor my write bīr, we will type biʾr, because biʾr is the standardform found in Wehr (and it is possible to read biʾr as the Arabic text is written without diacritical dots).
  • In case the rasm does not allow the insertion of hamza, we will write it without, add the lemmaunit to the corresponding lemma with hamza, and give a standardform in editlemmaunit pointing to the form with hamza. (d.May06)
  • In case of a floating hamza, we insert a tooth with hamza from layer full dots on, e.g. P.Marchands II 26:6 or 12 (d.June06)

3.3.5 Problem of asyndeton (sentences without appropriate conjunctions)

  • Verb serialisation where the first verb is in imperfect and no subordinating morpheme is found: We assign to the second verb also imperfect (following Fischer §188 where the case of perfect - imperfect is covered). E.g. "fa ŭnẓurī ʾan taqūlī li zawǧi ki yaqbiḍu min hu mirwaḥaẗ:an wa ..." (P.Marchands II 28, recto 6) (d.July06)

3.3.6 Problem of "ăn niṣf dīnār" and similar constructions

  • 1. ‫نصف دينار‬: as usual, e.g. niṣfu dīnār:in
  • 2. ‫النصف دينار‬: in transcription as ăn nisfu dīnār:in, niṣfu will be lemmatisied twice, once as and once as
  • 3. ‫نصف الدينار‬: as usual, e.g. niṣfu ăd dīnāri
  • 4. ‫النصف الدينار‬: as apposition, e.g. ăn niṣfu ăd dīnāru
  • 5. ‫ثلاثة دنانير‬: as usual, e.g. ṯalāṯatu danānīra
  • 6. ‫ الثلاثة دنانير‬: in transcription as ăṯ ṯalāṯaẗu danānīra, ṯalāṯaẗu will be lemmatisied twice, once as and once as, danānīra will be lemmatised as
  • 7. ‫ ثلاثة الدنانير‬: as usual, e.g. ṯalāṯaẗu ăd danānīra
  • 8. ‫ الثلاثة الدنانير‬: as apposition, e.g. ăṯ ṯalāṯaẗu ăd danānīru (d.Sept.06)

3.3.7 Problem of širāʾ / širà and similar cases

  • If both cases are attested, we use the form ending in -āʾ as Lemma. If the rasm allows it, we add thus Hamza from layer full dots on. In case of Alif maqsūra, no Hamza is added, but we assign he Lemmaunit nevertheless the Lemma ending with -āʾ. (d.July06)

3.3.8 Brackets

  • Words written in curly brackets and double square brackets appear only in plain line, i.e. they are not listed in all other layers nor will they be lemmatised. (d.July06)
  • Corretions by the editor which fragment a word: ‭instead of an expression like ‫الـ[ـسـ]{ر}كر‬ we substitute it by ‫{الـ[ـسـ]ـركر} <السكر>‬ , which are better seachable and readable. (d.July06).

3.3.9 Names

  • Names with plene- and non-plene spelling: plene-spelling as standardform. (d.40)
  • Names as Šanūdah, that carry apparently a tāʾ marbūṭa: We assign a tāʾ marbūṭa to the lemma, thus šanūdaẗ (d.47)
  • Names of males are always masculine and names of females feminine. Names are always det., even if they show nunation. There are however special cases, where a name can be in status constructus, e.g. mīnā baǧūš, Menas, Sohn des Pegoš. (d.Aug.06)
  • n.prop.loc. are normally feminine, unless they contain an element that is not yet lexically empty and masuline, e.g. šubrā (monastery). (d.July06)
  • n.prop.pers. of the form fiʿāl/faʿīl/mufʿil (e.g. Ziyād, Karīm, Muskin) are always triptotic. Feminine n.prop.pers., of whatever form, are always diptotic. For a comprehensive overview of whether a given personal name is diptotic or triptotic, cf. Fischer, Grammatik § 152-153 in combination with Brockelmann, Grammatik (Porta) § 72 (d. Aug. 10)
  • n.prop.pers. of the form faʿʿāl are triptotic (if all the consonants belong to the root e.g. Ḥassān:un and Ḥabbār:un but ʿaffānu (root ʿ f f)), those in faʿāl are diptoic (e.g. Ḥanānu). (d.Feb.11)
  • Names with Nisba without article are treated as they were triptotic: thus ḥusayniyy:un or ḥiǧāziyy:un. (d.March07)
  • Non-Arabic names are marked as such. Thus, in translation, put e.g. "Artemidoros (Greek)", or "Mina (Coptic)". I.e. without special characters (accents) and with the language denomination after the personal name and in brackets. (d.July10)
  • When lemmatising n.prop.pers. we try to give roots (radicals) as far as possible. This concerns personal names of Semitic and non-Semitic (i.e. Coptic, Iranian etc.) origins likewise (d. Aug. 10)

3.3.10 Omission of alif al-waṣl or lām of article

  • The article is represented in layer "latinized" as ăl, ăr, ăs etc. if Alif al-waṣl and lām are written. If not, we distinguish two cases:
  • 1. after the particle li: e.g. للفافة‬ : li l lifāfaẗi, but also non-standard as: ‫لشيخ‬ : li š šayḫi. I.e. representation by consonant only without vowel.
  • 2. with alif al-waṣl written but assimilation of lām: e.g. ‫ادراهم‬ : ĭd darāhim. I.e. representation by ĭ plus corresponding consonant. (d.Oct.06)

3.3.11 Variant readings with uneven number of words

  • In case an Arabic word could be read differently but the variant reading does not have the same number of elements, example of ‫لما‬ as lammā or li mā:‬
  • First case: lammā as basic reading and li mā as variant reading: lammā on position 1 and li as variant reading also on position 1. Create a position two with an o with stroke "ø" (Unicode 00f8) for the basic reading to indicate its emptiness and add mā as a variant reading on position 2.
  • Second case: li mā as basic reading and lammā as variant reading: li on position 1 and lammā as variant reading also on position 1. Mā on position 2 and a variant reading with an o with stroke "ø" for the empty variant reading on position 2. (d.Oct. 06)
  • Variant readings with uneven number of words by different editors: Apply the rules above. This implies "empty" positions either in the main or variant readings. Give a reference to the empty position if it is the variant by the second editor. Give this reference only once. E.g. from P.Khalili I 18.10: Khan reads ‫{ترتع}(تبارك وتعالى)‬ whereas Diem reads ‫ربع‬ at the same position. Give ‫تبارك‬ with variant reading ‫ربع‬، then write ‫وتعالى‬ with an empty variant reading. Give a reference to the empty position: Diem. Give this empty position also in the other layers, the reference, however, only on its upmost level. On the same line, you may also see the opposite example: Khan reads ‫قابلا‬ whereas Diem reads ‫فأنا في‬ . There is thus an empty slot in the main reading (without reference) and then the variants by Diem. (May11)‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
  • The symbol o with stroke "ø" (Unicode 00f8) is used on all layers to indicate empty positions. The corresponding empty form (no form) is labeled with the same symbol.

3.3.12 Addresses

  • Arrange the address according to its textual coherence, use thus - if needed - labels as "verso 1 right", "verso 2 right", "verso 1 left"
  • In case of an address upside down: number of line and right and left as seen when turned upside down, thus "upside down 1 right"
  • In case of "min" written at the end of the first half of a line but then followed by the second part of the name of the addressee (e.g. P.Marchands V/1 16: verso): add "min" to the following half line (the one of the sender) and give a reference in "plain words" as "Written at end of line ...."(d.Jan07). Another possibility is to write the right and left half of an address together on one line and mark the spation in between with |. This is to be favoured if the Sinneinheit is 1 right - 1 left - 2 right - 2 left. The above mentioned manner is to be favoured if the Sinneinheit is 1 right - 2 right - 1 left - 2 left. (d.March07)
  • Another possiblity is to write the right and left half of an address togehter on one line and mark the spation in between with |. This is to be favored if the Sinneinheit is 1 right - 1 left - 2 right - 2 left. The above mentioned manner is to be favoured if the Sinneinheit is 1 right - 2 right - 1 left - 2 left. (d.March07)

3.3.13 ǧumādà and rabīʿ

  • The standard lemmata are: ğumādà ǎl ʾūlà; ǧumādà ăl ʾāḫiraẗ; rabīʿ ăl ʾawwal; rabīʿ ăl ʾāḫar (not rabīʿ ăṯ ṯānī, for this form is not attested so far). (d.Dec.10)
  • Variant: fī ǧumādà ăl ʾāḫiri: ǧumādà [Lemma ǧumādà:, Standardformform ->] [Lemma ǧumādà ăl ʾāḫir, Standardlemma -> ǧumādà ăl ʾāḫiraẗ:] ʾāḫiri [Lemma ʾāḫir:] [Lemma ǧumādà ăl ʾāḫir, Standardlemma -> ǧumādà ăl ʾāḫiraẗ:]. The second element has thus no reference to a standardform or standardformform, for it depens on the first element. There are also crossreferences between the standardlemma and its variants.
  • We consider rabīʿ as diptotic, thus fī šahri rabīʿa ăl ʾāḫari. (d.Dec.10)
  • If there is a orthographical "mistake" in one of the elements: give the standardform only once, i.e. fī ǧumādà ăl ʾūlā: ʾūlā; [Lemma ʾawwal:, standardform: ʾūlà] [Lemma ǧumādà ăl ʾūlà:]

3.3.14 Vocalizing by editors

  • First case: Vocalizing given by editor (e.g. in textual remarks) is "wrong": We assign the "right" vocalization to words with full dots and vowels and transcription, without reference or bad consicence. E.g. taʿṭūna instead of tuʿṭūna. (d.April11)
  • Second case: The vocalizing of a word does not correspond to the vocalizing given by Hans Wehr (and if there are several variants: not to the first variant given): Vocalize as given by Hans Wehr and add a crossreference with "see". (d.April11)

3.3.15 All kind of lemmatising conventions

  • General negation: Assign acc.det. and NOT acc.indet. (see Fischer §318c). E.g. lā yada []. (d.Nov.10)
  • Imperative written with prefix-verbform, i.e. taktub ʾilay ya instead of ŭktub ʾilay ya. Assign apoc.! (d.April11)
  • In case of weekdays (for example in a list) written as combination of yawm + a greek numeral letter, yawm will be lemmatised twice: once as yawm and once as the corresponding weekday, e.g. yawm ăl ǧumʿaẗ. However, the numeral letter will not be lemmatised. (d.Oct.12)

3.3.16 Awful first editions

  • As a basic principle, the editio princeps is considered the basic edition and later editions or emendations are added with variant readings. However, in case of a very bad editio princeps, a later edition may be taken as the basic edition in adding the document to the database. Deviations can be given in variant readings with reference "earlier xxxx" or even in a line reference if a line was not deciphered at all. The important point is to ensure that the final product in the APD remains useful and readable and that the entering of the document will not consume an unreasonabe amount of time. (d.April15)

3.4. Automatic Lemmatisation (d.Nov.2010)

  • The page "editlinedata.jsp" provides several approaches to automatic lemmatisation. The most general way is by clicking on the button "Lemmatise By Frequency". In this case all latinized words are lemmatised according to the topmost propositions shown below the latinized words. Solutions in red are lemmatisation already done and these will not be changed. Solutions in blue are used for automatic lemmatisation.
  • A leading tricolon indicates that the proposition is based on the most frequent occurrence of the trigram consisting of the preceding word, the word itself, and the following word. Affixes are glued to the word and account for the selction of trigrams.
  • The trigrams are stored in a separate table in the database, which has to be updated periodically by the system administrator. Therefore, recently entered text may not yet provide trigram-information.
  • Wherever a leading tricolon appears, the following information is based on trigram information. This is also the case on the page "proposelemmatisation.jsp". If there are different lemmatisations for a trigram of identical strings, they are shown separately.
  • Proposition based on trigrams are ranged before propositions based on the single word alone.
  • Trigram information is not provided for variants. In this case, please use the propositions based on the single word!

4 Other operations

4.1 Renaming of lines

  • Search-field: type in the unique identifier.
  • Type in the number of the line after "verso" or "recto", e.g. "verso 2 right" or " recto right margin 1". In case a document is written on recto and verso (even if only one line), recto and verso are obligatorily mentioned. (By the way: also in the metadata-field under If the main part of the document is on recto it wil be "recto and verso" if the main part is on verso it will be "verso and recto". (d.May06)
  • order in case of several columns: numbering as in the edition, but arrangement according to unity of sense (Sinneinheit), i.e. one column after the other. (d.60)
  • If the editor numbers all lines serially, although there are lines that are for example written on the margin, we take the serial numeral first and after that the further description, e.g. 10 right margin 2. (d.Aug.06)

4.2 Insertion of lines

  • Choose papyrus and then choose any single line. Then click on the button "insert line". Then you will have to choose where it will be inserted. If you don't choose a line in the beginning an error will occur.

5 References


  • Write references without opening and closing brackes: Thus: Diem and not (Diem), unless a person's name is added a the end of a longer sentence, thus: Diem erroneously اپا ... , but see plate (AK) (d. Aug. 10)


  • In references, give diacritics (d. Oct. 20).

Punctuation of final nūn, qāf and fāʾ

  • Give a reference in Plain Words, either "nūn with a dot above", "qaf with two dots above" or "fāʾ with a dot above". For "unusual" punctuation see below. (d.Aug.06)

Wrong punctuation

  • If the editor has obviously made a mistake, we correct it and give a reference in Words with Full Dots like: ‭‫وقد‬: Abbott erroneously ‫وقذ‬, but see translation
  • If the editor has omitted punctuation, e.g. forgotten the dots on tāʾ marbūṭa, we add them and give a reference in Words with Full Dots like ‭‫المحبة‬: Rāġib erroneously ‫المحبه‬
  • If the scribe of the document has punctuated in a wrong way, we put the misspelt word in Plain Line in curly brackets and give the corrected one in angular brackets. On Layer Plain Words we give a reference like: ‭‫وقنيه‬: yāʾ with three dots above (see as an example P.CairArab 138:5). Be aware of the fact that dots may shift. In this case go to the same procedure but give a reference like: ‭‫القپال‬: dot of qāf (maġribī) shifted on bāʾ
  • In case a missspelt/"wrong" punctuated word is reflecting a non-standard form, i.e. tafaṭṭal instead of tafaḍḍal or ʾatbit insted of ʾaṯbit, an own lemma for the non-standard form is created. Give in the lemma-entry of the non-standard lemma also the corresponding standard-lemma (but not in the standard-form of the lemma unit!). Create cross-refs as well. (d.July07)

Unusual punctuation or too many dots

  • Give references in Plain words, if the punctuation is somehow unusual, e.g. ‭‫السمس‬: sīn with dash above, ‭‫السمس‬: sīn with waved line above, ‭‫الشمس‬: šīn with breve above or ‭‫الي‬: yāʾ with two dots above ‭‫القپال‬: qāf with one dot above (maġribī) or ‭‫غير‬: ġayn with dot inside.
  • If too many dots appear on the plate as regards the reading of a word by the editor, give a reference in plain word, e.g. "seems to have superflous dots on scan of original (EG)", (e.g. P.QuseirArab.67:recto right 8) (d.Dec.07).

Handmarks, empty lines and strokes (old entry, was valid until end of 2013)

  • Give a reference like: Handmark between ‫مائتين‬ and ‫بمحضره‬. Write the Arabic words according to layer full dots. (d.Nov.10)
  • Not classifyable marks like three dots as a triange (see P.GrohmannWorld p. 152 b:1) are also referred to as handmarks. Give a reference in Plain Line and Plain Words, if assigned a position. (d.May07)
  • In accounts with several columns it may happen that one column is without writing in it. List it nevertheless, leave the translation empty and give a reference to the translation "(blank)", whether or not "(blank)" is written in the translation of the editor. (e.g. P.QuseirArab.67:recto left 12) (d.Dec.07)
  • Strokes in accounts or similar documents are not reproduced by us, (not even in references). (d.Dec.07)

Handmarks, empty lines and strokes (new policy since 2014)

  • Refer to a dot, slash, oblique cross that serves as place holder or checking mark with a asterisk * (supplement 1, word category: mark), especially if it is reproduced by the editor.
  • Refer to a symbol or handmark (like crosses, circles, stars, triangles) with an asterisk * (supplement 2, word category: symbol). Give also a remark in plain words.
  • In accounts with several columns it may happen that one column is without writing in it. List it nevertheless, leave the translation empty and give a reference to the translation "(blank)", whether or not "(blank)" is written in the translation of the editor. (e.g. P.QuseirArab.67:recto left 12)

All kind of mistakes by the editor

  • Mistakes that are straight forward are corrected, give a reference like: ‭‫المعروڤه‬: Grohmann erroneously reads ‫المعرڤه‬, but see plate and translation or: ‭‫لاعلم‬: Rāġib erroneously ‫لا علم‬, but see plate and translation. Never give a reference like: "edition with printing mistake" or similar. (d.Oct.06)
  • If the editor has erroneously forgotten to transcribe a whole line, add it (if possible) like it would belong to the edition (i.e. no line variant). Give a reference like "AK; Jahn has just ..." in "plain line" and "translation" (e.g. P.Jahn 14.18) (d.Oct.06)

Corrections by the scribe

  • If text is erased or crossed through we distinguish two cases: The first one is the "normal" one, where double angular brackets are used and the word is only represented in layer plain line. These are the cases, where the scribe himself CORRECTED the text. The second case is where the scribe crossed lines through because a transaction has been accomplished or a debt has been paid (see e.g. P.QuseirArab. 64). Give in this case a reference in plain line as "Line crossed through". The words however appear on ALL layers. (d.Nov.07)
  • If the scribe corrected a word but did not cross the wrong one out, give a reference (and use curly brackets for the word that has been corrected), e.g. پمپهما‬: corrected by the scribe into ‫پمراهما‬

Corrections and variant readings by us

  • In case you add something in Plain Line (with angular brackets), give a reference in Plain Words including the abbreviation of your name, e.g.: ‭‫العاڤپه‬: ‫الـ‬ added by AK‬
  • If you suggest a new reading of a line, create a variant reading instead of correcting the one by the editor. Give a reference to the whole line mentioning the abbreviation of your name in parantheses, e.g. (EG)‬
  • If you suggest a new reading of a single word, create a variant reading and give a reference with the abbreviation of your name, e.g. واسهداهم: (AK)‬

Different editions of one papyrus

  • Take the first (entire) edition as the basic one. Deviations from it are marked by references, in which the name of the second editor is given in brackets.
  • Try to avoid line variants, if possible. Give rather a reference to the line within which you write the line according to the second editor. Or give references as for example: version of Rāġib. Abel and David-Weill do not mark the erasures. Abel reads within the erasures only ‫ڤرارپط‬ , David-Weill reads ‫طارد‬ but omitts ‫پسپع ڤرارپط‬ altogether.
  • The translation of the first edition is taken as the basic one. Later translations are given with a reference (name of the later editor in brackets). References to translations cannot be made in "editlinedata" but in "showpapyrus" under "show". (d.August06)
  • In case two editors do not agree whether a line belongs to the document or not, give a reference like "xxx part of another document (only X)" in plain line. (d.Aug.06)
  • In case of additional corrections by means of an inlay after having printed an edition (e.g. Grohmann, World p.162.2, 4 and inlay): give a reference like "Grohmann, World, additional corrections (inlay)". (d.July08)

Deviations from standard text of Koran

  • In cases koranic passages deviate from the contemporary text, we have to check whether they are simple slips of the pen, or variants of the original text. Assuming the latter, do not "correct" the text but give a reference to the standard text beginning with "In Cairene Koran ... ". E.g. P.Bad. V 147:4/8/16. (d.Oct.06).

6 Crossreferences

  • Type 1: Names (of places, months or persons) with different spellings: Reference from the main lemma to all variants and from all variants to the main lemma (not between the different variants). In case it is not clear, which lemma may be the main lemma, we will take the one that was used in most instances. The reference comment will be "see also".
  • Type 2: Lemmata mentioned together in one paragraph in Wehr (e.g. muḏ and munḏu or sa and sawfa): Reference from both lemmata to each other. The reference comment will be "see also".
  • Type 3: Lemmata which are a combination of to or more elements (e.g. kaḏa, mimman, ʾinnamā): Reference only from its elements to the lemma. The reference comment will be "see also". Please note: The corresponding lemmaunits will from now on only be lemmatised once (i.e. by the combinated lemma).
  • Type 4: Lemmata which we have not found in dictionaries and obviously seem to be non-standard (e.g. ʾann vs. ʾannaẗ, warrà vs. ʾarà, taqwāẗ vs. taqwà, the first one being the one attested, the second one its standard counterpart): Reference from the attested lemma to the standard lemma and vice versa. The reference comment will be "see also". In cases however where the deviation is only a simple orthographical one (e.g. ʾabqā vs. ʾabqà), no extra lemma will be created but the lemmaunit assigned to the standard-lemma (plus standardform). Note that the non-standard-lemma may exhibit another root than the "correct" standard-lemma.
  • Type 5: All kind of orthographical variants. Reference only from the variant to the standardlemma, which is the one (or inside one lemma, more than one) found in Wehr. The reference comment will only be "see". This type of reference is meant to ease the retrieval of lemmata for the user of the database and thus not restricted. Possible crossreferences could be: tārīẖ referring to taʾrīẖ, sabʿūn reffering to sabʿūna, ism reffering to ĭsm etc. - just everything that might facilitate the use of the database. (d.May06)
  • See also point 3.1.7 for the dealing with Greek and Coptic crossrefs.
  • "Language" field in Crossreferences: Choose "Greek" when you type in a crossreference in Greek language and letters (e.g. διακονος), "Coptic" for Coptic language and letters (e.g. ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲉ). However, "Spanish" (e.g. Salvador), "Persian" (e.g. bērōn) etc. will be typed in in Latin letters. Make sure you have default setting "Arabic" if you make a crossreference from a word that appears in Arabic script in your text, independently of the etymological origin of it. (d.June15)

7 Spanish Documents

  • Spanish Era is abbreviated AHisp in field "Date as on Document". (d.Feb12)
  • In case of differences between the vocalisation on the plate and in the edition, take the vocalisation of the orginial and give a remark in "long remark": Vocalisation as on plate. (d.Feb.12)
  • If a whole document ist punctuated in the maġribī-way, give a remark in "long remark": Dotting of qāf and fāʾ: maġribī (d.Feb.12)
  • If the vast majority of final nūns, qāfs and fāʾs is dotted, give also a remark in "long remark": Final nūn, qāf and fāʾ dotted until otherwise stated. (d.Feb.12)
  • In case of الله written with a fatḥa on the šadda, give a fatḥa in all layers, but replace it by an ā in layer latinized. (d.Feb.12)
  • Words in aljamiado passages (not loanwords), like in P.LabartaAljama lines 9-12 are lemmatised as *** 106 (d.Feb.16)

8 Conventions for the File-Maker Database

  • In case an unpublished document is referred to as it was published (e.g. P.GrohmannBerlin 16 - 35, the manuscript has apparently been sent to the journal but got lost), we'll add (unpublished) in field P.Erg. (d.Dec.10)
  • Field emendation and further literature: Reference to the mentioning of a document consists of: Last name of Author, Sigle (if it is a monograph) or short name of article, p. (for page) and the pagenumber. E.g. Diem, P.Berl.Arab. II p. 121 or Diem, Frühe Urkunden p. 149. Give semicolons between different page numbers of the same book or article and give also semicolons between different books or articles, e.g. Diem, P.Berl.Arab. II p. 94; 190; Khan, P.Khalili I p. 238. (d.June12)
  • Field further literature: Even if a document is referred to more than once on a given page, give only one reference (without (2x) or similar notes). (d.June12)
  • Field emendations: If an emendation is given, don't mention the reference in fleld further literature. (d.June12)
  • Field "date as on doc.": Follow the same instructions as given to the field with the same name in the APD. (d.Aug.14)
  • Taylor-Schechter Collection in Cambridge: choose "P.Cam.inv." in the first field, then put "TS" and a possible letter (or "Ar.") into the second, white field. The first number (before the dot) should be intered into the third, yellow field, the second letter (after the dot) without dot into the fourth, white field, e.g. P.Cam.inv.TS H 10 173 or P.Cam.inv.TS Ar. 53 59. In the Cambridge Digital Library a document will be found with or without dot between the two numbers but not with dot and space character (or space character and dot). However, be aware of the fact, that for searching there, you have to remove the space between a letter (or "Ar.") and the following number (searches have to be for H10.173 or H10 173, and Ar.53.59 or Ar.53 59 respectively). (d.May16)
  • Quoting literature
    a) in the fields "edition", "translation", "image", apply the existing guidelines for the corresponding fields in the APD. We retain diacritics in these fields, i.e. ʿAsalī not Asali. For literature published in latin characters, we quote the name of the author as it is written in the publication concerned (Ragheb or Rāġib).
    b) in the fields "emendation" and "further literature", we may also quote publications which are not editions. For this reason, all publications will need a shortname, consisting of last name of author and distinctive noun(s) of title. Three or more authors are quoted as "et al.", e.g. "Delattre et al., Écrire". The "distinctive noun(s) of title" is the one marked in bold characters in the Full Bibliography. Please check the Bibliography and the filename in our internal repository. Correct and/or report any inconsistencies. (d.April17)